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Luxemburg, Rosa

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Autor: Luxemburg, Rosa
Rok: 1871-1919

Biogr./Hist. údaje: Německá revolucionářka polského původu, činitelka německého a mezinárodního dělnického hnutí.
Zdroj: Autoritní databáze Národní knihovny ČR

Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Polish: Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish-Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was, successively, a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartakusbund ("Spartacus League"), which eventually became the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). During the November Revolution she co-founded the newspaper Die Rote Fahne ("The Red Flag"), the central organ of the Spartacist movement.She considered the Spartacist uprising of January 1919 a blunder, but supported it as events unfolded. With the crushing of the revolt by Friedrich Ebert's Majority Social Democratic government who sent in the Freikorps (World War I veterans usually on the extreme right-wing serving in government-sponsored paramilitary groups) to crush the Spartakusbund, Freikorps troops captured Luxemburg, Liebknecht, and some of their supporters. Luxemburg was shot and her body thrown in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin.Due to her pointed criticism of both the Marxist-Leninist and the more moderate social democrat schools of socialism, Luxemburg has had a somewhat ambivalent reception among scholars and theorists of the political left. Nonetheless, some Marxists came to regard Luxemburg and Liebknecht as martyrs: according to the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht continues to play an important role among the German political left.

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